A red cell distribution width (RDW) blood test can help detect the presence of anemia, along with what could be causing it. The test identifies the size difference between the biggest and smallest red blood cells in a sample. In this article, we look at what to expect when having this test, and when it might be used.
Instead of becoming trapped under the skin, an ingrown eyelash may grow in the wrong direction, toward the eye. This is called trichiasis, and it can cause irritation, pain, and damage to the cornea. Injury, inflammation, or certain conditions may be responsible. Medical treatment is often necessary. Learn more here.
Pink eye is a relatively common eye condition. There are many potential causes, but one of the most significant problems is how not to spread the condition to others. There are different types of pink eye, which can change the length of contagiousness. Knowing the signs can help a person avoid infecting anybody else.
Protopic - Mechanism of Action.
The mechanism of action of tacrolimus in atopic dermatitis is not known. While the following have been observed, the clinical significance of these observations in atopic dermatitis is not known. It has been demonstrated that tacrolimus inhibits T-lymphocyte activation by first binding to an intracellular protein, FKBP-12. A complex of tacrolimus-FKBP-12, calcium, calmodulin, and calcineurin is then formed and the phosphatase activity of calcineurin is inhibited. This effect has been shown to prevent the dephosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), a nuclear component thought to initiate gene transcription for the formation of lymphokines (such as interleukin-2, gamma interferon). Tacrolimus also inhibits the transcription for genes which encode IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, GM-CSF, and TNF-α, all of which are involved in the early stages of T-cell activation. Additionally, tacrolimus has been shown to inhibit the release of pre-formed mediators from skin mast cells and basophils, and to down regulate the expression of FcεRI on Langerhans cells.
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